How The Internet Travels Across Oceans? Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing

How The Internet Travels Across Oceans?

99 of all internet traffic from this article to your Google account to   your family WhatsApp group runs on a hidden network of undersea cables. But why should you care, do you ever think? This is because modern life is increasingly dependent on those slinky sub aquatic wires and they get attacked by sharks from time to time. 


Ocean Internet Cable Server



How do they work, what's the future for them, if you want to know then continue to article? Today as we plunge the depths and ask how the internet travels across oceans, according to the Authoritative Submarine Cable Map Website, there are currently 493 active or   actively under construction sub-sea internet cables crossing the globe. These range from the relatively modest 300 kilometer Azerbaijan to Turkmenistan wire running under the black sea to the absolutely gargantuan 6600 kilometer Maria cable linking Virginia Beach in the United States.   With bill bow in Northern Spain Maria weighs the same as 24 blue whales apparently. The   firm's laying down this serpentine superhighway worldwide, there's now 1.5 million kilometers of   undersea data wires.


How much it all costs? Professional estimates indicate  a typical transoceanic cable should set you  back between three and four hundred millions of   dollars which seems like a lot because they're not  especially thick typically around the girth of a   garden hose and that includes layers of protective  Thixotropic Jelly around the all-important fiber  optic core plus multiple plastic sheaths and  copper wiring to power. The thing but even so  on average they can ferry an awesome 100  gigabytes per second in data with newer and   forthcoming cables able to transmit 400 gigabytes  per second, so how does so much data fit down such   slim channels. Part of the answer is an extremely sophisticated data wrangling technique known as  Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing.


Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing lets data   providers use more than one wavelength of light to convey information fiber optically instead several wavelengths are employed simultaneously and stacked creating astonishing data speeds. This   happens at buzzing data center-like landing sites at either end of the cable or the cables just   straight forward. Long wires not quite every 70 to 100 kilometers or so along the seabed cables   are punctuated with so-called repeaters. These  essentially serve as amplifiers keeping the signal   strength up to par over long distances that's  why the cables incorporate copper conductors   by the way carrying up to 10 000 volts of dc  to power the repeaters.


How are the cables laid?


They're first coiled into vast cylindrical drums on specialized cable laying ships, as much as a year’s planning and charting will go into plotting. The perfect trans-oceanic route bad locations   for undersea cables include anywhere volcanic or anywhere especially earthquake or mud slide prone or anywhere heavily trolled by fishermen. The cable is spooled out the back of the ship at a   sedate pace of around 10 kilometers an hour, if the ship encounters bad weather the captain can decide   whether to break off the cord tie it to a boy and retreat to karma waters when the storm passes. The ship returns to the boy and picks up where it left off.


Accidents and outages on the cables can and do occur. In 2012 hurricane sandy in the United States knocked out several key transatlantic cables disrupting   networks for hours in 2011, the Fukushima earthquake in Japan caused similar online. The vast majority of such disruptions however  are the result of human carelessness typically trawler nets or wayward ships anchors cables situated close to the shore are significantly more at risk from such disruption. As such the  nearer to Lander cable is the more likely, it'll   be carefully armor-plated many are even dug  into the seabed in long dedicated trenches   carved out using ship-drawn plows awesomely sharks  have been spotted nibbling on one of Google’s  subsea cables get your teeth into a 2014 clip. 


More sinister even than that the US government has consistently warned of interference in the cables from hostile foreign powers like Russia   or China. The USA government should know all about that whistleblower Edward Snowden revealed in 2013, how the NSA had no qualms eavesdropping on fiber optic communications. The geopolitical implications   of undersea cables are also fascinating last year. The Australian government intervened to prevent   Chinese technology giant Huawei from installing a cable connecting Australia with the Solomon islands. The fear is that china could use the link  to gain access to Australia’s sensitive internal   networks.


So who actually owns these cables that are an interesting question? It's an expensive business   so historically nations or quasi national telecom providers have picked up the bill the world's   biggest owner of cables remains America’s AT with a stake in some 230000 kilometers of undersea cable. The second biggest owner is china telecom.  Frequently cables are owned by groups or consortia   of up to 50 separate owners including tech firms, local government agencies and other businesses  and while this model helps spread the initial  cost it's less helpful when something goes wrong  and nobody can agree who has to put on a wetsuit  and do something about it increasingly big tech   is recognizing its scope for growth is limited  by the undersea cable network, so over the past   few years the overwhelming majority of investment  in undersea cable infrastructure has come from   companies like Facebook which currently owns  nearly 100000 kilometers of cables Google owns   roughly the same amount Amazon has its own massive  private network hooking up the online giant's   mighty AWS data centers through cables traversing  the Atlantic pacific and Indian oceans plus the   Mediterranean and the red sea and the south  china sea.


The tech giants like to frame these   vast environmentally disruptive infrastructure  projects a civilization enhancing largesse on   their part but they're also shareholder companies  remember who know perfectly well that increasing  the number of human beings online is the only way  they can continue to grow hang on a second. You're   probably thinking what about starlink isn't our old mate Elon about to make the internet   wireless any day now.


For now cable is by  far the cheapest and most efficient means   of eating vast packets of data over incredibly  long distances fast even normally bullish musk  says starlink is only aimed at people who don't  presently enjoy access to high speed fiber but   who knows how that'll pan out in a decade or two  for now the future is very much undersea cables   only this summer Google and Facebook announced  a joint initiative to build an undersea cable   named apricot. Apricot will link up Singapore Japan Guam the Philippines Taiwan and Indonesia   by the year 2024. The longest sub aquatic cable ever a 45 000 kilometer billion dollar monster  called to Africa that will link up 33 nations was  just bankrolled by a Facebook-led consortium.


Follow us @ Facebook : Advanced Tech World


Read Also:

NASA's Mars 2020 Mission - Perseverance

Post a Comment