Basic of Physics - III

Basic of Physics - III


(The article is intended for academic purpose)

Kinetic energy: The kinetic energy is defined as the energy possessed by the body by virtue of its motion and it is associated with the motion of a particle of mass m and speed v, where v is below the speed of light. Its formula is KE = (1/2)mv2.

Work: Work is energy transferred to or from an object via force acting on the object. Energy transferred from the object is negative work while the energy transferred to the object is positive work.


Work Done By Constant Force:  The work done on a particle by a constant force F during the displacement d is, W = F.d or Fd(cosφ), in which φ is the constant angle between the directions of force and displacement. Only the component of force that is along the displacement can do work on the object. When two or more forces are acting on an object, their net work is sum of individual works done by the forces which is equal to the work that would be done on the object by the net force of those forces.


Work done & Kinetic Energy: For a particle, the change in kinetic energy is equal to the net work done on the particle.


Work Done By Gravitational Force: The work done by gravitational force on a particle like object of mass m as the object moves through a displacement d is given by, W=mgd(cosφ) where the φ is the angle between the gravitational force and the displacement vector.


Work Done In Lifting And Lowering An Object: The work done by an applied force as a particle like object is either lifted or lowered is related to the work done by  the gravitational force and the change in kinetic energy is given by sum of work done by applied force and work done by gravitational force.


Spring Force: The spring force is given by F=-kx (Hooke’s Law), where x is the displacement of the spring’s free end from its position when the spring is in its relaxed state and k is the spring constant. A spring force is a variable force that varies with the displacement of spring’s free end.


Work done by spring force: If an object is attached to the spring’s free end, the work done on the object by the spring force when the object is moved from an initial position to a final position.


Work done by a variable force: When the force F on a particle like object depends on the position of the object, the work done by the force on the object while the object moves from an initial position to final position must be found with integrating the force. 


Power: The power due to a force is the rate at which that force does work on an object.


Conservative forces: A force is a conservative force if the net work it does on a particle moving around any closed path, from an initial point and then back to that point, is zero. Equivalently, a force is a conservative if the net work it does on a particle moving between two points does not depend on the path taken by the particle. The gravitational force and the spring forces are conservative force; the kinetic frictional force is non conservative force.  


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