Small Things Have Big Impact


Small Things Have Big Impact

Nanotechnology or nano-science refers to research and development of an applied science at molecular or atomic level. It is defined as science and technology involved in design, synthesis, characterization and application of material and devices whose the smallest functional organization in at least one dimension is on one nanometer scale. The word “Nano” signifies billionth. Nanotechnology is a widely emerging field in different areas but it will play a significant role in medical industries. According to National Nanotechnology, nanotechnology is considered as multidisciplinary field of scientific research as it directly manipulates materials on nano-scale.


What is Nanotechnology?

The world wide used definition of nanotechnology is – “the creation and utilization of materials, devices and systems through control of matter at least at atomic level”. Richard Phillips Feynman is considered as father of nanotechnology. He proposed use of machine tools that would be used to make still smaller tools up to molecular level. As per him nanobots or nanomachines, or whatever you called them, cannot be neglected and they could ultimately be used to develop wide range of microscopic instrumentation. The term nanotech was coined by “Nario Taniguchi” in 1975 and after 25 years of that commercial application of nanotechnology started in 2020.

What are Nano-materials?

The materials with the components less than 100 nm in at least in one dimension which includes grains less than 100 nm diameter, cluster of atoms, films with thickness less than 100 nm. At nano-scale properties of material behaves differently and governed by atomic and molecular rules. This unique property of material at nano-scale is used by scientists/researchers to create new and exciting tools and product in all areas of engineering and technology. Solid state physics, chemistry, chemical engineering, electrical engineering, biophysics and material science can be combined with nanotechnology. Nano-tech enhances the properties of materials like:



Increased scratch

Improved transparency 



Heat resistance

Decreased gas permeability 


In addition to above properties nano-materials have other enhanced properties like magnetic, optical, chemical and electro-optical properties.

Some Famous Nano-materials

Nanopores,  Nanorings, Nanotube, Quantumdots, Nanoshells, Nanocapsules, Nanobelts  Nanowire, Nanosphere, Fullerenes, Liposomes, Dendrimers.





What is Self Assembly in Nanotechnology?

In the world of nanotechnology an autonomous organization of components into patterns or structures without human intervention occurs. The whole mechanism can be manipulated and facilitated through correct setting of condition and this is all done by important feature of nano-structured materials called Self Assembly. 


Some Applications of Nanotechnology

Nanomaterials For Periodontal Drug Delivery


Nano particles owing to their small size penetrate regions that may be inaccessible to other delivery systems such as periodontal pocket subgingivally. Pinon-Segundo et al produced and characterized triclosan loaded nano-particles by the emulsification-diffusion process, in an attempt to obtain a novel delivery system adequate for the treatment of periodontal disease. These triclosan - nanoparticles behave as homogenous polymer matrix-delivery system, with the drug molecularly dispersed. It was concluded that triclosan nano-particles were able to effect a reduction of the inflammation of the experimental sites. Timed release of drugs may occur from biodegradable nanospheres. This also allows for site specific drug delivery. A good example is Arestin in which tetracycline is incorporated into microspheres for drug delivery by local means to a periodontal pocket.

Growth Factors

Growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) have significantly enhanced periodontal therapy outcomes with a high degree of variability, mostly due to the lack of continual supply for a required period of time. One method to overcome this barrier is gene therapy. PDGF-B gene delivery in fibroblasts using nano-sized calcium phosphate particles (NCaPP) as vectors has found to significantly enhance fibroblast proliferation.

Atomic Force Microscopy(AFM)

Botelho,Martins2010[35] conducted a study using 8.5 % doxycycline gel containg nanospheres,prepared using carbopol 940,% w/v for preventing bone loss.AFM images analysed the topographical and roughness surface aspects,that has increased the prediction of periodontal therapy evaluation



Bone growth and implant success can be accelerated by the use of nanotechnology.Besides surface contact area and surface topography, bone bonding, and stability play a major role in implant success and osseointegration. Osteoblast formation on a more complex implant surface is formed by the addition of nanoscale deposits of hydroxyapatite and calcium phosphate particles[37] .Material engineering, and hence implant dentistry, has advanced extensively on the basis of researches conducted on the effects and subsequent optimization of micro topography and surface chemistry. These new implants constructed on the basis of this technology are more acceptable as they enhance the integration of nano coatings resembling biological materials to the periodontal tissues.


These were some applications of nanotechnology to the medical industries. The scope nanotech is not limited to medical industries but also in other fields of engineering. In future nanotech is going to change human perception.


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