Camera Lenses

Cameras lens explained

There are only two types of camera lens called prime lens and zoom lens. Prime lens has only single focal length while zoom lenses have range of focal lengths. Whenever a lens is defined by single focal length it will be a prime lens like 24 mm, 35 mm, 50 mm, 85mm, 100 mm etc., on the other hand if lens is defined by numbers like 75-200 mm, 18-55 mm, 70-300 mm it will be a zoom lens. Any lens in this world will be categorized only in these lenses i.e. prime lens and zoom lens but considering the focal length as base there is another one categorization for lens in high levels. These lenses are wide angle lens, regular lens and telephoto lens. If we talk about wide angle lenses then any lens with focal length less than 35 mm will be a wide angle lens (this rule is not a standard one that focal length less than 35 mm will be wide angle lens but usually definition is accepted). As focal length decreases in wide angle lens it will categorized as super wide angle (8 mm, 10 mm etc.) or ultra wide angle. The lenses with focal length between 35 mm to 70 mm are considered as regular lens or normal lens and above 70 mm focal length telephoto lens range starts. Some lenses in category of wide angle are called fish eye lens because it is based on how fish would see an ultra wide hemispherical view from beneath the water. Zoom lens overlaps focal length of wide angle and regular lens. 

Prime Lens
Plan view of Prime Lens
Now there are some points which makes prime lens better than zoom lens but it doesn’t mean that zoom lens are not good.

Prime lens improves visualization: 
As a photographer when you take a picture with prime lens you have to move toward or away from object to take photo. While making this movement you can easily understand what is happening around object means you are adjusting yourself and can make a clear or change perspective as per your need. On the other hand if you are using zoom lens and you want to take a portrait you simply zoom in or zoom out the object. In this you are not near the object and you cannot take a clear view of surrounding the object and you cannot adjust in this way. By experience I am telling you to invest in prime lens which will cost around 8000 INR approximate.

40/1.8 Lens
Wider Aperture: 
If we go more technically then prime lens are available with aperture f1.8, f1.4 and f1.2 etc. while dealing with zoom lens they are available in f4, f5.4 etc. and minimum in this category if f2.8. Aperture opening in prime lenses is wide and reasons behind this are discussed in next two points.
Zoom Lens for DSLR

Shallow depth of field: 

If you are getting wide aperture opening like f1.8 then it will help  in blur effects photography like if you shot for candle. Shallow depth of field will be available opening with wider aperture. Prime lens will be the best option if you want to go with blur effects. Zoom lens will not provide at such a level of shallow depth of field.

Better Low-light performance: This performance is only due to wide aperture of the lens. By default you know if aperture opening is wide then more light will come and this will lead for better photography in case of events or indoor shoots, clubs, wedding etc. As light comes in more quantity you have to not adjust ISO and the photos that will be obtained will be well focused and sharped. 

More Sharpness and clarity: 
The sharpness and clarity with prime lens is high in comparison to zoom lens. Technically as light is passing through only one optical lens, optical can pass  more information and effect of light to sensor as it passes through the optics as compared to zoom lens. Even if you are talking about chromatic aberration and distortion then prime lens will make these better (means both will be reduced) as compared to zoom lens.

Cheaper than zoom lens: 
This point is very important while dealing with financials. The cost price for prime lens is low as compared to zoom lens.   

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